The oesophagus is a muscular tube through which food, liquids and saliva passes from the mouth to the stomach. It is lined with a soft-moist tissue called, mucosa. The oesophagus has two sphincters, the lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) and the upper oesophageal sphincter (UES). The upper oesophageal sphincter (UES) is a region of muscle located at the top of the oesophagus. It prevents the food and secretions from going down the wind pipe. These UES muscles are under conscious control and are involved in breathing, eating, belching, and vomiting. Another bundle of muscles called lower oesophageal sphincter (LES), is located at the lower end of the oesophagus, just where it joins the stomach. As food enters the oesophagus, the LES relaxes and allows the food to pass in to the stomach.. The LES muscles are not under voluntary control.
Disorders affecting the oesophagus include:
- Heartburn:Heartburn is characterised by a burning type pain in the lower part mid-chest, behind the breast bone. It is caused by irritation of the oesophagus due to the reflux of acidic stomach contents into the oesophagus. The reflux occurs due to the incomplete closure of LES.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a condition where the stomach contents (food or liquid) rise up from the stomach into the oesophagus because of a weak or relaxed lower oesophageal sphincter (LES). Heartburn is usually the main symptom. Other symptoms include belching, chronic sore throat, difficulty or pain when swallowing, sudden excess of saliva, hoarseness, sour taste in the mouth, inflammation of the gums, bad breath and erosion of tooth enamel.
- Oesophagitis: Oesophagitis is an inflammation of the oesophagus caused by irritation (as from reflux) or an infection.
- Barrett’s oesophagus: Barrett’s oesophagus is a condition in which the lining of the oesophagus changes and resembles the stomach lining The cause for the Barrett’s oesophagus is not known but is commonly found in people with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD Barrett’s oesophagus increases the risk for oesophageal cancer.
- Oesophageal ulcer: It is erosion in the lining of the oesophagus often caused by chronic reflux.
- Oesophageal stricture: Oesophageal stricture is narrowing of the oesophagus often caused by chronic reflux.
- Achalasia: It is a rare disorder characterised by difficulty in swallowing and regurgitation of food. In this condition, the LES does not relax appropriately.
- Oesophageal cancer: It is a cancer that occurs in the oesophagus. It is rare and factors such as smoking, heavy drinking and chronic reflux increase the risk of developing oesophageal cancer.
- Mallory-Weiss tear: It is a tear in the lining of the oesophagus. It is usually caused by forceful vomiting or chronic coughing. Symptoms may include bloody stools or vomiting of blood.
- Oesophageal varices: Oesophageal varices are enlarged veins in the walls of the oesophagus that balloon outward. This condition is common in people with cirrhosis of liver. Rupture of these veins may lead to life threatening bleeding.
- Oesophageal ring (Schatzki’s ring): It is an abnormal ring of tissue formed around the low end of the oesophagus. It is a birth defect of the oesophagus. Usually it does not cause any symptoms but in some it may cause difficulty in swallowing and the food feels stuck in the lower neck.
- Oesophageal web: These are small, thin growths of tissue that partially block the oesophagus. They usually occur in the upper oesophagus and cause no symptoms. In people with long-term (chronic) iron deficiency anemia, oesophageal web may lead to difficulty in swallowing. This condition is referred as Plummer-Vinson syndrome
Tests to diagnose these disorders may include upper endoscopy, oesophageal pH monitoring and barium swallow.
Treatment varies according to the type of disorder. Medications such as H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors are prescribed to reduce stomach acid to improve GERD and Oesophagitis. Surgical removal of the oesophagus (Oesophagectomy) is recommended for oesophageal cancer. Oesophageal dilation may be advised to dilate a stricture, web, or ring that interferes with swallowing. Oesophageal variceal banding may be used to treat oesophageal varices. In this procedure, rubber band-like devices are wrapped around oesophageal varices to make them clot, and thus reduce the chances of life threatening bleeding.